2020年3月

杨照《想乐》:亨德尔的凯撒

亨德尔是谁?

1685-1759,出生于德国,死于伦敦。创作了不少历史题材的歌剧,这些歌剧后来被称为“正歌剧”,以区别于以后出现的喜剧歌剧。

《凯撒》讲的什么事?

Cesare, in pursuit of his enemy Pompeo, has followed him to Egypt. Pompeo's wife Cornelia pleads with Cesare to spare her husband. He is about to grant her plea, when the Egyptians led by their boy king Tolomeo bring him the head of Pompeo. Cornelia and Pompeo's son Sesto vow to avenge his death. Tolomeo's sister Cleopatra desires to depose her brother in order to become the sole ruler of Egypt. She joins Cornelia and Sesto in their plans for vengeance and entreats Cesare to aid her. Following her overtures, Cesare falls in love with Cleopatra. Her brother attempts to assassinate Cesare, but he escapes. It is reported to Cleopatra that Cesare has drowned while in flight. She is taken captive by her brother. Cesare, who has escaped drowning, enters to free his beloved. Tolomeo is slain by Sesto, because he forced himself upon Cornelia against her will. Cesare makes Cleopatra Queen of Egypt and returns to Rome.

在罗马内战期间,公元前54-49年,凯撒追击庞贝到埃及。庞贝的妻子柯内莉亚为丈夫求情,在凯撒就要答应时,庞贝的首级被当时埃及的年轻国王托勒密13世拿了进来。埃及艳后,当年21岁的小克(克利奥帕特拉),此时正在和小托(托勒密)打内战,于是与凯撒联手,准备整死小托。小托暗杀凯撒失败。最后,小托死掉,复仇完成,皆大欢喜。

真实的故事呢?

当克利奥帕特拉流亡在外时,庞培卷入罗马内战中。在前48年秋季,庞培在凯撒军的追击下来到了亚历山大外海,寻求庇护。年仅15岁的托勒密十三世还很年轻,此事主要由财政大臣波提纽斯处理。前48年9月28日,庞培虽然觉得事情有异,托勒密迎接的场面既不隆重,还有点肃杀,岸上满是士兵,加上托勒密还派出舰队像是监视庞培般。庞培自知无法逃脱,只得乘着对方安排的一艘小船,准备要登上埃及的海岸。然而迎接他的托勒密军官在庞培一上岸,就杀了庞培并砍下他的头,动手的军官中还有庞培的老部下。庞培的妻子和孩子在海上看到这件惨案,连忙扬帆逃走,这天刚好也是庞培58岁生日。

托勒密十三世认为庞培之死可以讨凯撒欢心,可以成为罗马忠贞的盟友,或许还可以减轻王国欠罗马的债务,然而这事后来被证明是大大失算。两天后,凯撒来到埃及,托勒密派人奉上庞培的头颅,但这使凯撒相当愤怒,对于庞培之死垂泪不已。虽然庞培是凯撒政治上的劲敌,但也是他独生女茱莉亚的丈夫(等等 Julia? 不是Cornelia么?都没错,Julia是凯撒的独女,嫁给庞贝后第五年,因为难产而死)更曾是罗马的执政官,身为罗马人且已是罗马实际掌权者的凯撒无法容忍本国的要人为异国人擅自杀害。

关于这个歌剧

德国人亨德尔谱曲,意大利人填词,在英国首演,很是国际化。意大利语的歌剧,反正就是听吧。3个多小时呢。

此剧1724年写成,首演后大获成功。后来随着轻歌剧的兴起而慢慢被人遗忘。1922年后在德国被重新搬上舞台。

Bizet, Symphony in C major

由李大兴《诗意与记忆》公众号上看到的。比才(1838-1875) 17岁写的一部交响曲。

According to Grove's Dictionary, the symphony "reveals an extraordinarily accomplished talent for a 17-year-old student, in melodic invention, thematic handling and orchestration."[1] Bizet started work on the symphony on 29 October 1855, four days after turning 17, and finished it roughly a month later.[2] It was written while he was studying at the Paris Conservatoire under the composer Charles Gounod, and was evidently a student assignment. Bizet showed no apparent interest in having it performed or published, and the piece was never played in his lifetime.

惭愧,至今还没听过他的《卡门》。这篇由法国作家梅里美(Mérimée,1803-1870)写的小说改编的歌剧。短命的他,在《卡门》不成功的首演后几个月,就辞世了,死于败血症。

Eric Lu

1997年生的新生代钢琴家。2018 Leed Winner。Guardian对其最近的performance给了2/5星评价,没感情,没技术。2月份的Gramophone对其进行了采访,有podcast。他的专辑包括:Chopin Op 28 Prelude, Brahms Intermezzo 117, and Schumann Ghost Variation。

[Gramophone 乐评] Albion Quartet的Dvorak No 8. and No 10

By Richard Bratby

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What a gorgeous disc! True, it’d be a poor sort of string quartet who couldn’t make your heart melt with the opening phrases of Dvorák’s Op 51 String Quartet. But I’ve rarely felt such a glow of love from the less familiar E major Quartet, Op 80, the opening piece on this second disc in (let’s hope) a series devoted to Dvorák from this young British ensemble.

I’m not sure if there’s such a thing as a distinctively Czech style of quartet- playing (when I interviewed the Pavel Haas Quartet last year, they emphatically denied it). But anyone who thinks that the new generation of super-quartets are merely about virtuoso brilliance should hear the myriad shades of russet and gold that the Albion Quartet find in these two enchanting works. This, surely, is how Dvorák’s chamber music is supposed to sound: luminous, playful (there’s a
real kick to his dotted dance-rhythms), and simultaneously generous and touchingly intimate.

But the Albions engage head as well as heart, finding exactly the right scale for the climaxes in Op 80’s slow movement and moving brilliantly, buoyantly as one in the exuberant skočná that closes Op 51. Some tempos can feel a little breathless but the Albions’ obvious love for this music is never laboured: I liked the way leader Tamsin Waley-Cohen applies the lightest of portamentos to the third movement of Op 80 – nothing blatant, but enough to make the melody flow.

But in the big tuttis (such as in the fast sections of Op 51’s dumka second movement) there’s still a satisfying crunch of rosin on string, though it’s never hectoring or crude – just (like the whole disc) sweetly and unaffectedly musical. I know it’s early, but I can already see this being my pick of the year.